18th Century

96 K
A Hue and cry after part of a pack of hounds, which broke out of their kennel in Westminster.
London, printed for F. Style, 1739.
1 p.l., 28 p. 20 cm.
Caslon, William, 1693-1766, type designer.
942.07 H887
William Caslon established his foundry in 1720 and issued a specimen of printing types in 1734. His type was the first native English production of high quality. It was immediately accepted and eliminated the monopoly of Continental types. Until the late 18th century, it was the typeface of choice in the American colonies and was widely used throughout Great Britain.
174 K
La Condamine, Charles-Marie de, 1701-1774.
Journal du voyage fait par ordre du roi, a l'equateur, servant d'introduction historique a la Mesure des trois premiers degres du meridien. Par m. de La Condamine.
Paris, Imprimerie royale, 1751.
1 p. l., xxxvi, 280, xv p. illus., v plates, maps, fold. table. 26 cm.
France. Imprimerie royale, printer.
508.3 L142j
The Imprimerie Royale was founded in 1640 by Louis XIII at the urging of Cardinal Richelieu. In 1692, Louis XIV ordered the creation of a new typeface, based upon scientific principles in contrast to the calligraphic style. A committee of the Academie des Sciences designed the type, which was cut by Phillipe Grandjean, who softened much of the mechanical look. The resulting roman du roi, with thin serfs, an emphasis on the vertical axis, and greater contrast between thick and thin lines, would influence typography throughout the 18th century, culminating in the cool engraved faces of Bodoni, Didot, Martin, and Bell.
123 K
Tasso, Torquato, 1544-1595.
Aminta; favola boscareccia di Torquato Tasso.
In Glasgua, della stampa di Roberto ed Andrea Foulis, 1753.
74 p. 17 cm.
Foulis, Robert, 1707-1776, printer.
Foulis, Andrew, d. 1775, printer.
851.4 T214a 1753
The Foulis brothers exemplified the trend initiated by Baskerville to leaded lines with generous margins and high quality paper that gave an open feel to the page. Their books, many in smaller formats, always possesed an elegance in design. Printers to the University of Glasgow, they produced a number of handsome editions of the classics. This is an early example of their work in which their susceptibility to Baskerville's precepts is evident.
207 K
Bucolica, Georgica et Aeneis.
Birminghamiae, typis Johannis Baskerville, 1757.
5 p.l., 432 p. 30 cm.
Baskerville, John, 1706-1775, printer.
871 V9 1757
Baskerville's first book was a revolution that influenced printing on the Continent as well as Great Britain. New type, new ink, and calendered paper in combination with heavily leaded lines and generous margins was a complete break with the past. The typeface he designed was open with a graceful elegance. The paper was of his own invention. Previously, the paper mould left distinct marks from the laid and chain lines. Baskerville wanted a completely smooth surface. He prevailed upon the eminent papermaker John Whatman to eliminate the lines, resulting in a mould that was composed of woven wire of equal diameter. The calendering, used on both laid and wove paper, produced an astonishingly smooth and regular paper.
118 K
Steuart, James, Sir, 1712-1780.
Recherche des principes de l'economie politique, ou essai sur la science de la police interieure des nations libres ...
Paris, De l'Imprimerie de Didot l'Aine, 1789.
5 v. 20 cm.
Didot, Francois Ambroise, 1730-1804, printer.
330 S842iF
The Didot family of printers was the most influential in France in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Actually, "printers" does not convey the extent of their interests: printing, typefounding, papermaking, book illustration, and publishing in all their aspects. The Didots were instrumental in the invention of a papermaking machine. They perfected the process of stereotyping, in which a mold was made from letterpress type. Plates could then be cast from the mold, meaning a publication would not have to be reset. About 1780, F.A. Didot commissioned a typeface with narrower capitals, fine serifs, and increased contrast of thick and thin lines.
85 K
Morelli, Francesco, 1761-1841. Saggio di poesie / del conte D. Francesco Morelli. Crisopoli [Parma] : Impresso co' tipi Bodoniani, 1794.
xi, 86 p. ; 20 cm.
Bodoni, Giambattista, 1740-1813, printer.
. 851.6 M842s
This exemplifies the Bodoni book: the crisp smooth paper, intense black ink, and a typeface with hairline serifs, strong contrast between thick and thin lines, and a complete emphasis on the vertical axis. He was influenced by Baskerville in the use of leading and large margins, giving the page a bright white look, and an absence of decoration or illustration.
237 K
Goldsmith, Oliver, 1730?-1774.
Poems / by Goldsmith and Parnell.
London, W. Bulmer and Co., 1795.
xx, 76 p. illus. 29 cm.
Wood-engravings by Thomas Bewick.
Bulmer, William, 1757-1830, printer.
Bewick, Thomas, 1753-1828, engraver.
821.6 G624p Oversize
This volume is of particular interest as it is the first to adequately print the wood-engravings of Bewick. Bulmer, who had worked for John Bell, was selected as the printer for the project conceived by Josiah Boydell and George Nicol to publish a grand edition of Shakespeare. The typeface newly designed by William Martin reflected Baskerville and Bodoni faces.
127 K
Schiller, Friedrich, 1759-1805.
The minister: a tragedy. In five acts.
2d ed.
London, J. Bell, 1798.
2 p.l., 220 p. 22 cm.
Bell, John, 1745-1831, printer.
832.6 S334kEl 1798
John Bell was extremely influential in late 18th century printing. He is well-known for publishing standard editions of English authors, notably poets and playwrights. He was dedicated to the new English printing and his British Letter Foundry was the first to drop the long "s" from its fonts. The Bell and Bulmer/Martin faces evolved into the modern faces that dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries.

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